Relief Shading
Relief shading uses shadows to bring out the topography of the terrain from a digital elevation model (DEM). It is creating using a technique called hillshading. Variations in hillshade give the elevation a 3D effect displaying hilly or flat areas of the data.

Slope
Slope displays the inclination or steepness of a surface, measured in either degrees or percentage. In this map slope displays the percentage slope of the data, where slope is the rise divided by the run X 100.

Aspect
Aspect is also calculated from the DEM and displays the steepest slope down of the plane of a raster cell, and takes into account the aspect a raster cell’s 8 neighbouring cells.

Digital Surface Model
The DSM is the height of objects on the earth’s surface, captured by a sensor (in this case a LIDAR device). It can determine tree and building heights in each cell of the raster, but does not refer to bare ground.

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